|By the end of the topic learners should be able to:|
Thomas Hobbes notes that man is selfish, quarrelsome, aggressive and egoistic in nature and as a result there is conflict.
Society came into existence as a method of protecting individuals against consequences of his own nature. Due to this individuals entered into a contract to ensure security and certainty of property and life. The individuals decided to surrender natural rights into the hands of the authority so as to be protected and live in peace.
John Locke is of the view that individuals were enjoying an ideal liberty without any form of rules and regulations. The state of nature was a state of peace, goodwill, mutual assistance and preservation but there was no system of law and justice. Men’s lives were often upset by the corruption and viciousness of individuals. Individuals lived in fear and dangers, so to escape this they made a contract to enter into a civil society or a state where men’s powers and rights will be surrounded and the remaining rights will be protected.
Jean Jacques Rousseau says that man was a noble savage who lived primitive idyllic happiness. He was independent, contented, self-sufficient, healthy, fearless and good. He knew neither right or wrong. Primitive instinct and sympathy united him with others. Population increased and human equality came to an end, individuals started to think in terms of mine and yours. War, murder, conflicts started when equality and happiness of the early state was lost. As a result individuals became a collective unity thus a society. The individual surrounded himself completely and unconditionally to the will of the society in which they became members.
Secondary socialization occurs from late childhood and continues throughout life; it teaches individuals how to behave as humans by helping in the learning of values, norms, roles and ideologies.
Hitler thought that Jews, as well as people belonging to some other communities were all inferior to his ethnicity, and did not deserve to live and had many people killed in concentration camps. Ethnocentrism is always portrayed in movies and other sources of entertainment but usually portrayed in a comical manner.